The last use of fossil fuels: making chemicals without oil and gas

Download PDF


25 April, 2024


Chemicals, plastics and chemical products are everywhere in modern society, and the majority of them are made from fossil fuels as ingredients. There are alternatives, such as recycled plastic wastes, carbon from plants, and captured carbon dioxide, but all of these have trade offs and will face strong competition from other sectors.

This report, which follows our earlier report “A new formula”, explores the scale of this challenge. It argues that the government should explore a green carbon mandate for chemicals, to help the industry transition away from fossil feedstocks.


Liam Hardy and Roz Bulleid



We use cookies, just to track visits to our website, we store no personal details.

Accept Cookies

What are cookies?